The latest forecast from consulting firm AlixPartners is that the chip shortage may cost the global auto industry $110 billion; it will reduce global auto graphite powder.
Natural graphite is mainly used in refractories, batteries, steelmaking, expanded graphite, brake pads, casting surfaces and lubricants.
The use of graphite as a refractory (heat-resistant) material began before 1900 as a graphite crucible for holding molten metal; this is a small part of today's refractories. In the mid-1980s, carbon-magnesia bricks became important, followed by alumina-graphite shapes. As of 2017, the order of importance is alumina-graphite profiles, carbon-magnesite bricks, Monolithics (gunning and tamping mixtures), and then crucibles.
The crucible begins to use very large flake graphite, while carbon-magnesia bricks do not need that large flake graphite; for these and other aspects, the sheet size required is now more flexible, and amorphous graphite is no longer limited to low-end refractories. Alumina-graphite profiles are used as continuous castings, such as nozzles and grooves, to transport molten steel from the ladle to the mold, and magnesia bricks are arranged in converters and electric arc furnaces to withstand extreme temperatures. Graphite blocks are also used in blast furnace lining components, in which the high thermal conductivity of graphite is very important to ensure the full cooling of the furnace bottom and furnace. High purity monoliths are usually used as continuous lining rather than carbon-magnesia bricks.
The use of graphite in batteries has increased since the 1970s. Natural and synthetic graphite are used as anode materials for the construction of electrodes in major battery technologies.
Demand for batteries, mainly Ni-MH and Li-ion batteries, led to an increase in demand for graphite in the late 1980s and early 1990s-an increase driven by portable electronic devices, such as portable CD players and power tools. Laptops, mobile phones, tablets and smartphones have increased the demand for batteries. Electric vehicle batteries are expected to increase demand for graphite. For example, the lithium-ion battery in the all-electric Nissan leaf contains nearly 40 kilograms of graphite.
Radioactive graphite from old nuclear reactors is being studied as fuel. Nuclear diamond batteries have the potential to provide long-term energy for electronic products and the Internet of things.
The natural graphite in steelmaking is mainly used to increase the carbon content in molten steel; it can also be used to lubricate dies used for extruding hot steel. Carbon additives face competitive prices from alternatives such as synthetic graphite powder, petroleum coke and other forms of carbon. A carburizer is added to increase the carbon content of the steel to a specified level.
Natural amorphous and fine flake graphite is used for brake linings or brake shoes of heavier (non-automotive) vehicles and becomes important as an alternative to asbestos is needed. This use has been important for a long time, but non-asbestos organic (NAO) components began to reduce the market share of graphite.
Casting surface and lubricant
The mold cleaning solution for casting is a kind of waterborne amorphous or fine flake graphite coating. Use it to paint the inside of the mold and let it dry, leaving a fine graphite coating to ease the separation of the casting after the hot metal cools. Graphite lubricant is a special product used at very high or very low temperatures. It is used as forging die lubricant, anti-jamming agent, gear lubricant for mining machinery and lubricating locks. There is a great need for low-grained graphite or even better non-grained graphite (ultra-high purity). It can be used as dry powder in water or oil, or as colloidal graphite (permanent suspension in liquid). The metal can also be impregnated into graphite to form a self-lubricating alloy for applications in extreme conditions, such as machine bearings exposed to high or low temperatures.
Since the 16th century, all pencils have been made of English natural graphite, but the most common modern pencil lead is a mixture of powdered graphite and clay. It was invented by Nicolas-Jacques Cont é in 1795.
Today, pencils are still a small and important market for natural graphite. About 7 per cent of the 1.1 million tonnes produced in 2011 was used to make pencils. The use of inferior amorphous graphite is mainly from China.
Graphite is probably the most commonly used lubricant in pine derby.
Graphene is used to make 40mm acoustic drivers that transmit sound to the ear. A dynamic driver, also known as a moving coil driver, uses an electric voice coil to move the cone and generate sound waves. These drives are made up of more than 95% graphene and retain most of the mechanical properties of the material, while being easier to form and cheaper to manufacture. It is a lightweight, rigid and low-density material, which is very suitable for loudspeaker diaphragm. The heavier the loudspeaker, the more difficult it is to drive. Because graphene has such a high strength-to-weight ratio, graphene drivers can reduce the power required to move coils back and forth, resulting in improved efficiency and better sound.
Natural graphite has been used in zinc-carbon batteries, motor brushes and various professional applications. Graphite with different hardness or softness will produce different qualities and tones when used as an artistic medium. The railway usually mixes graphite powder with waste oil or flaxseed oil to form a heat-resistant protective coating for exposed parts of steam locomotive boilers, such as smoke boxes or fire boxes.
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Greece will hand over Iranian oil it intercepted from a Russian-flagged tanker to the United States at the request of the U.S. Justice Department, Greek port police said recently, AFP reported. The decision angered Tehran.
In April, Greek authorities reportedly seized a Russian oil tanker, the Pegas, which was said to be heading to the Turkish port of Marmara.
Reports say the ship was docked in Calistos Bay with a crew of several people said to be Russian. The Greek coast guard said the ship had been renamed the Lana.
The report notes that the European Union imposed sanctions on Russia after the conflict broke out in February. Greek authorities seized the tanker in accordance with European Union sanctions.
According to information at the time, the tanker was carrying 115,000 tons of Iranian oil.
Iran's Ports and Maritime Organization strongly protested Greece's decision, calling it an "international bandit." "The Islamic Republic of Iran will not give up its legitimate rights and expects the Greek government to abide by its international obligations in the area of navigation and shipping," it said in a statement on its website.
Iran's Foreign Ministry, through the International Maritime Organization, called on the Greek government to release the tanker and its crew overnight, adding that "the Americans discharged their cargo," the report said.
Athens did not immediately respond to the Iranian protest and gave no further details about the oil on board or how it was handed over to the United States, the report said.
The graphite powder price is expected to increase in the next few days affected by the change in supply and demand markets.